[JLPT grammar] The difference between ないで and なくて

Today I am going to share the homework correction quoted from my JLPT N4 course!
The student’s sentence is not correct. Can you find the mistake?


[Student’s sentence]





[My correction]


I came to school without eating breakfast.


Aないで、B:B without A
Aなくて、B:(I) didn’t do A, so B

AないでB means that A is not done and B is done instead.


I wrote a report without sleeping.

Please take the test without using a dictionary.

AなくてB means that there is a negative result because of not doing A, and B is the result or outcome.


I failed the exam because I didn’t study.

I regret not being able to go to the party.


I hope my explanation helps you. 😊


In the JLPT course, all lessons come with homework. If you submit your homework, I will reply with corrections.
I can break down the Japanese grammar and point out mistakes, explaining the structure and nuances of Japanese in an easy-to-understand way.
You can also ask me any questions in as much detail as you want. I will teach you until you get it!